The workshop started off with the introduction of the "MAGER and PIPE's PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS MODEL":
It's a flow-chart that runs through areas that helps to examine and hence identify area for improvement (or should I say, area of concern).
- It started off by "Describing performance discrepancy", ie. "Is this set of skill important?" If not, then igore... otherwise move on...
- "Skill Deficiency": Is what we observed (ie. when the jobholder could not perform the duty) is really because the jobholder lacks the skill? or it's a result of other factors?
- For the former - when it's due to the lack of skill, the series fo diagnosis tests and the kind of prescription seem to be quite direct.
- The one that arouse my interest is really the other reason - that leads to other 'checks': when the jobholder is not performing...Is it because...
- >>> the Performance is punishing? The mindset of the more you do, the better you do a piece of work, more work will be landed up on your lap? In fact, this is true. Isn't it? When one does a good piece of work, it raises expectation in the next task. When one has established that 'good reputation' and trust... more often, work will knock at your door... you'll be the first person that cross others' minds! So, there's no end to the 做牛做马life. Right? With this mindset - who dares to give a too-perfect piece of work? Oh yes, someone also pointed out (during the workshop) how powerful the comment "don't spoil the market" could be! Well, one way to address to this is to remove the 'punishing factors' - eg. the mental model of the people, the reaction of the people around.
- >>> the non-performing rewarding? Yes, when it's "OK" when one does not do the expected amount of work. Then, why do more? So??? This implies monitoring is necessary to point out non-performing instances and emphasise the need to perform on par. On this, I think I'm also a culprit who encourages this to happen... especially when I see I'm able to manage while the other party is stressed up with other work...
- >>> the performance matters? does good performance matters? If yes, what are the motivators to further reinforce it?
- >>> any obstacles? For instance, the lack of resource... then tackle it first.
There are several kinds of analysis
- Need Analysis: (i) What do you want the learners to be able to perform? (ii) What can they perform now? (ie. the pre-requisites) (iii) What's the performance gap? (iv) Can the gap be addressed by training?
- Learner Analysis: Classify goals by learning domain (i) Psychomotor skill (eg. separate egg white from the yolk) (ii) Intellectual Skill (eg. open and maintain cheque book) (iii) Verbal Information (eg. able to name the different parts of the flower) (iv) Attitude (eg. choose to drive safely)
- Learner Background: Age (attention span); Grade; Stream; Sex; General Experience with the world they live in
- Knowledge: Entry skills/Pre-requisites/Prior Knowledge; Literacy level (eg. level of difficulty of English); Level of ICT skills
- Psychological: Motivational level; Ability; Learning Style (verbal, visual)
- Social: Cultural Background; Readiness for pair work; group work; Group composition
- Content Analysis: Break subject matter into smaller and instructionally useful units (i) identify and isolate single idea/skill units for instruction (ii) act as an objective decision rule - to include/exclude. Tools for Content Analysis can include: mindmap, table, charts
- Task Analysis: Content analysis differs from task analysis because it stems from an examination of information. Task analysis involves intensive examination on how people perform work activities. It should start with VERB (eg. execute, operate).
- Context Environment Analysis: Factors for consideration includes (i) What environment the learners are based at? (lab, classroom, hardware/software) (ii) What other tools needed? (plugins required to go with the learning package) (iii) Internet bandwidth that learners have (iv) cost (v) any other constraints exist?
After the analysis....
- do not jump into design immediately!
- assess existing resources - there are those that exactly fits the needs or can be adapted/modified?
- design and develop only the inavailable components
- Design what needs/need not to be taught
- Sequence the content (however, note that it is not necessary to be linear)
- Write instructional objective
- Write instructional strategies are chosen
- Assessment procedures are selected
Specific Instructional Objectives (SIO)
- Behaviour - use observable terms
- Conditions - eg. with equipment
- Degree - how much to achieve: 80% of the pupils able to do; any deviations allowed?
Eg: Given a bar, line or circle graph, the 7th grade Maths students will be able to verbally present all the statistical information with 100% accuracy.
Other references Rothwell & Kazanas (1998). Mastering the Instructional Design Process: A Systematic Approach.
Of the entire workshop, think I'm amaze by the types of analysis that one has to come up with - before really putting the hands into developing a module. Yes, it's really ideal... to be foolproof.
Moreover, the point that Dr Teo mentioned (towards the end) that by right, the assessment should be ready even before implementation of the module. Yes, again, it's really very very ideal in the school situation. As he said, many a time, teachers will only start preparing the exam papers about 2 months before the exam... ok, this current practice has its plus and minus:
- the plus in the sense that what's tested would be likely what's taught... it could also take into account any 'special situation' arises.
- the minus will probably reinforce the problem "not enough time to cover", so push coverage after the exam... yes, it's a really bad bad habit!
In fact, isn't it that there exists the 'ideal' when the exam syllabus of the "O" and "N" levels are given and all schools are given 2 years to complete... and there, nobody dares to complain "push the topic 'cos no time to cover!" hahaha...